Chapter 9 – References

Bohra, A., Kilian, B., Sivasankar, S., Caccamo, M., Mba, C., McCouch, S.R., Varshney, R.K. 2021. Reap the crop wild relatives for breeding future crops. Trends in Biotechnology.

Dempewolf, H., Baute, G., Anderson, J., Kilian, B., Smith, C., Guarino, L. 2017. Past and future use of wild relatives in crop breeding. Crop Science 57:1070-1082. DOI 10.2135/cropsci2016.10.0885

Gepts P. 2018. The domestication of our food crops. In: Chrispeels MJ, Gepts P (editors). Plants, Genes & Agriculture: Sustainability through Biotechnology. Oxford University Press, Cary, North Carolina.

Graham, P.H., Vance, C.P. 2003. Legumes: Importance and constraints to greater use. Plant Physiology 131: 872-877.

Greene, S.L., Warburton, M.L. 2017. Wading Into the gene pool: Progress and constraints using wild species. Crop Science 57:1039-1041. DOI 10.2135/cropsci2017.04.0001in

Harlan, J.R. 1992. Crops & Man, 2nd ed. American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Khoury, C.K., Carver, D., Greene, S.L., Achicanoy, H.A., Schori, M., Leon, B., Wiersma, J.H., Frances, A. 2020. Crop wild relatives of the United States require urgent conservation action. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 117: 33351-33357. DOI 10.1073/pnas.2007029117

Kimmerer, R.W. 2013. Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge, and the Teachings of Plants. Milkweed Editions, Minneapolis.

Mt Pleasant, J. 2016. Food yields and nutrient analyses of the Three Sisters: A Haudenosaunee cropping system. Ethnobiology Letters 7:87–98.

Ngapo, T.M., Bilodeau, P., Arcand, Y., Charles, M.T., Diederichsen, A., Germain, I., Liu, Q., MacKinnon, S., Messiga, A.J., Mondor, M., Villeneuve, S., Ziadi, N., Gariépy, S. 2021. Historical indigenous food preparation using produce of the Three Sisters intercropping system. Foods 10:524,

Sheaffer, C.F., Moncada, K.M. 2012. Introduction to Agronomy: Food, Crops, and Environment. 2nd ed. Delmar, Cengage Learning, Clifton Park, NY.

Sleper, D.A., Poehlman, J.M. 2006. Breeding Field Crops, 5th ed. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA.

Stalker, H.T., Warburton, M.L., Harlan, J.R. 2021. Harlan’s Crops and Man: People, Plants and Their Domestication, 3rd ed. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Volk, G., Byrne, P. 2020. Crop Wild Relatives and Their Use in Plant Breeding.

Zhang, C., Postma, J.A., York, L.M., Lynch, J.P. 2014. Root foraging elicits niche complementarity-dependent yield advantage in the ancient ‘three sisters’ (maize/bean/squash) polyculture. Annals of Botany 114: 1719–1733. doi:10.1093/aob/mcu191

Internet Resources on Three Sisters practice and history:

Native Seeds/SEARCH ( offers a wide variety of seeds of Three Sisters crops for sale. NS/S is a nonprofit seed conservation organization in Tucson, Arizona specializing in seeds of indigenous communities of the Southwestern U.S. and Northern Mexico.

A stunning photo essay of Three Sisters seeds by seedkeeper Rowen White can be viewed at An interview with Ms. White in Emergence Magazine is available at

Video: An Oneida Elder Speaks About the Three Sisters Garden

The Legend of the Three Sisters, Oneida Indian Nation

Three Sisters Garden, American Indian Health and Diet Project

Returning the ‘three sisters’ – corn, beans and squash – to Native American farms nourishes people, land and cultures, The Conversation

Resources on Native American agriculture and food sovereignty:

Video: Indigenous Seed Keepers Network

Native American Food Sovereignty Alliance

Native Seeds/SEARCH

Dream of Wild Health


Crop Diversity: A Virtual Crop Science Field Tour Copyright © 2021 by Patrick F. Byrne; Meagan Schipanski; and Deana Namuth-Covert. All Rights Reserved.

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