Links to some Published Best Practices for Genebanking

Gayle M. Volk, USDA-ARS National Laboratory for Genetic Resources Preservation, 1111 S. Mason St., Fort Collins, Colorado, 80521 (Gayle.Volk@usda.gov)

The purpose of this chapter is to provide ready access to some additional resources for some best practices for plant genetic resource conservation and genebanking.

Outline

  1. Introduction
  2. Best practices for genebanking
  3. Best practices for wild species conservation
  4. Best practices for seed banking
  5. Best practices for clonal preservation
  6. References
  7. Acknowledgments

1. introduction

Best practices for plant genetic resource genebanking, seed banking, and conservation have been published by multiple organizations. Herein, we provide information from the table of contents from a few of these publicly available documents. One additional source of useful information is the Crop Genebank Knowledge Base, (https://cropgenebank.sgrp.cgiar.org/), that is produced by the System-wide Genetic Resources Programme (SGRP) of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

2. Best practices for genebanking

1. Introduction
2. Underlying principles
3. Standards-Structure and definitions
4. Genebank standards for orthodox seeds
5. Field genebank standards
6. Genebank standards for in vitro culture and cryopreservation

After Vavilov: Collecting germplasm in the 21st century

1. A brief history of plant germplasm collecting
2. Legal issues in plant germplasm collecting
3. An introduction to plant germplasm exploration and collecting: planning, methods and procedures, follow up
4. Assessing the threat of genetic erosion
5. Basic sampling strategies: theory and practice
6. Strategies for the collecting of wild species
7. Classifications of infraspecific variation in crop plants
8. Sources of information on existing germplasm collections
9. Published information on the natural and human environment
10.Published sources of information on wild plant species
11. Aids to taxonomic identification
12. Secondary sources on cultures and indigenous knowledge systems
13. Published information resources for plant germplasm collectors
14. Ecogeographic surveys
15. Mapping the ecogeographic distribution of biodiversity and GIS tools for plant germplasm collectors
16. Mapping the ecogeographic distribution of biodiversity and GIS tools for plant germplasm collectors (continued)
17. Plant heatlh and germplasm collectors
18. Collecting plant genetic resources and documenting associated indigenous knowledge in the field: a participatory approach
19. Collecting and recording data in the field: Media for data recording
20. Collecting and handling seeds in the field
21. Collecting vegetatively propagated crops (especially roots and tubers)
22. Collecting vegetative material of forage grasses and legumes
23. Collecting woody perennials
24. Collecting in vitro for genetic resources conservation
25. Collection pollen for genetic resources conservation
26. Collecting symbiotic bacteria and fungi
27. Collecting herbarium vouchers
28. Processing of germplasm, associated material and data
29. Reporting on germplasm collecting missions
30.- 39. Case studies
40. Collecting DNA for conservation
41. Gap Analysis: A tool for genetic conservation

3. best practices for wild species conservation

IPGRI Technical Bulletin No. 11: In situ conservation of wild plant species a critical global review of good practices (Heywood and Dulloo, 2005).

Part 1. Concept, approach and actors of species-based in situ conservation

Part 2. In situ conservation methodologies

Part 3. Global survey of in situ conservation activities–good practices and case studies

Part 4. The way forward, conclusions and recommendations

4. best practices for seed banking

Seed Handling in Genebanks (Rao et al., 2006).
1. Introduction
2. Germplasm acquisition and registration
3. Seed cleaning
4. Seed moisture content determination and drying
5. Seed quality testing
6. Seed packaging and storage
7. Germplasm distribution
8. Germplasm monitoring and regeneration

Part 1. Conventional Seed Banking to Support Species Survival in the Wild

A. The difference between orthodox, intermediate and recalcitrant seed

B. Collecting seeds from rare plant populations

C. Splitting samples for safety duplication storage and testing

D. Cleaning, processing, drying, and storing orthodox seeds

E. Curating small samples: Increasing the number of seeds for storage and restoration

Part 2. Alternatives to Conventional Seed Banking

A. What are alternatives to conventional seed banking?

B. Collecting and maintaining exceptional species in tissue culture and cryopreservation

C. Field genebanks or inter situ collection

Part 3. Genetic guidelines for acquiring, maintaining, and using a conservation collection

A. The importance of representing genetic diversity

B. Genetic guidelines for acquiring a conservation collection

C. Genetic guidelines for maintaining a conservation collection

D. Genetic guidelines for using portions of the conservation collection for reintroductions and other purposes

Part 4. Rare plant reintroduction and other conservation translocations

A. The goal of rare plant reintroduction

B. Justifying and deciding whether to conduct a reintroduction or other conservation translocation

C. Preparing for the reintroduction

D. Implementing the reintroduction

E. After the installation

Part 5. Documentation and data sharing

A. The importance of documenting conservation actions

B. Documenting rare plant collections and reintroductions

C. Distributing samples and information

5. best practices for clonal preservation

IPGRI Handbooks for Genebanks No. 7. Technical guidelines for the management of field and in vitro germplasm collections (Reed et al., 2004).

1. General considerations for the establishment and management of germplasm collections
2. Procedures for establishing and maintaining field and in vitro collections
3. References

The Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) System-wide Genetic Resources Programme (SGRP) funded three Global Public Goods Projects relating to Plant Conservation.

Part 1. Project landscape and general status of clonal crop in vitro conservation technologies (Benson et al., 2011a)

1. Introduction
2. PGP2 project road map and landscape
3. Collective action for the rehabilitation of global public goods
4. In vitro conservation: safeguarding against loss of clonal crop diversity
5. Risk management and safety in the in vitro genebank
6. General status of the in vitro conservation community of practice
7. Research, validation, and best practices in in vitro genebanks

Part 2. Status of in vitro conservation technologies for: Andean root and tuber crops, cassava, Musa, potato, sweetpotato and yam (Benson et al., 2011b)

1. Introduction
2. General status of mandate clonal crop in vitro conservation
3. Status of mandate clonal crop in vitro conservation in CGIAR’s genebanks
4. Collective critical point analyses of in vitro genebanks
5. Conclusions: Lessons learnt and priority research needs

Part 3. Multi-crop guidelines for developing in vitro conservation best practices for clonal crops (Benson et al., 2011c)

Section 1. General best practice guidelines for clonal crop in vitro genebanks

1. Organizational and quality frameworks
2. Infrastructures and technical operations
3. Inventories, documentation and knowledge management
4. Safety, risk management and biosecurity
5. Guidelines for germplasm registration, verification and processing
6. Distribution of materials from in vitro genebanks
7. In vitro genebank quality assurance and management systems

Section 2. Multi-crop technical guidelines for in vitro conservation in clonal genebanks

1. Generic technical guidelines for culture initiation
2. Generic technical guidelines for in vitro multiplication
3. Generic technical guidelines for detecting microbial contaminants
4. Keeping technical records
5. Generic technical guidelines for germplasm monitoring
6. In vitro culture and storage performance indicators
7. Quality control checks for routine monitoring
8. Verification (authentication)
9. Generic technical guidelines for medium-term storage: slow growth
10. Generic technical guidelines for long-term storage: cryopreservation

6. references

Benson EE, Harding K, Debouck D, Dumet D, Escobar R, Mafla G, Panis B, Panta A, Tay D, Van den houwe I, Roux N. 2011a. Refinement and standardization of storage procedures for clonal crops – Global Public Goods Phase 2: Part I. Project landscape and general status of clonal crop in vitro conservation technologies. System-wide Genetic Resources Programme, Rome, Italy.

Benson EE, Harding K, Debouck D, Dumet D, Escobar R, Mafla G, Panis B, Panta A, Tay D, Van denhouwe I, Roux N. 2011b. Refinement and standardization of storage procedures for clonal crops – Global Public Goods Phase 2: Part II. Status of in vitro conservation technologies for: Andean root and tuber crops, cassava, Musa, potato, sweetpotato and yam. System-wide
Genetic Resources Programme, Rome, Italy.

Benson EE, Harding K, Debouck D, Dumet D, Escobar R, Mafla G, Panis B, Panta A, Tay D, Van denhouwe I, Roux N. 2011. Refinement and standardization of storage procedures for clonal crops – Global Public Goods Phase 2: Part IIIc. Multi-crop guidelines for developing in vitro conservation best practices for clonal crops. System-wide Genetic Resources Programme, Rome, Italy.

Center for Plant Conservation. 2019. CPC Best Plant Conservation Practices to Support Species Survival in the Wild. Web Version. https://academy.saveplants.org/best-practices/table-contents. Accessed: 11/18/2019

FAO. 2014. Genebank Standards for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Revised edition. Rome, Italy.

Guarino L, Ramanatha Rao V, Goldberg E, (editors). 2011. Collecting Plant Genetic Diversity: Technical Guidelines – 2011 Update. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy. ISBN 978- 92-9043- 922- 6.

Heywood VH, Dulloo ME. 2005. In situ conservation of wild plant species: a critical global review of best practices. The International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) Technical Bulletin 11. IPGRI, Rome, Italy.

Rao NK, Hanson J, Dulloo ME, Ghosh K, Nowell D, Larinde M. 2006. Manual of seed handling in genebanks. Handbooks for Genebanks No. 8. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy.

Reed BM, Engelmann F, Dulloo ME, Engels JMM. 2004. Technical guidelines for the management of field and in vitro germplasm collections. The International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) Handbooks for Genebanks No. 7. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy.

7. Acknowledgments

Citation: Volk GM. 2020. Links to some Published Best Practices for Genebanking. In: Volk GM, Byrne P (Eds.) Crop Wild Relatives in Genebanks. Fort Collins, Colorado: Colorado State University. Available from https://colostate.pressbooks.pub/cropwildrelatives/chapter/published-best-practices/

This training module was made possible in part by funding from USDA-ARS, Colorado State University, IICA-PROCINORTE (procinorte.net), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

Editors: Emma Balunek, Gayle Volk

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